Crani On the Brainy… Will I Ever Be the Same?

Inca’s were known to perform trepanations, however the exact purpose is unknown. Trepanation, or craniotomy, is the act of making a hole in the skull to reach the brain. Skulls from many ancient cultures, including the Inca’s, show evidence that these civilizations successfully trephined themselves. Its apparent the patients survived these procedures, although we can…

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The Pain-free Gene

In a practice performing spine surgeries, pain management is a common topic. Attempts to minimize postoperative pain involve minimally invasive techniques, which have been shown to limit pain. Consideration of ERAS techniques, including semi-awake procedures, also helps diminish postoperative pain and avoidance of narcotic medications. Recently, it has been found that some patients have a…

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