Transcranial Electric Stimulation

Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, passing an electric current into the brain through the scalp, to alter brain function. In contrast to other brain stimulation techniques, like transcranial magnetic stimulation, the current in Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) is not very powerful and maintains subthreshold levels to only affect the cortex…

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COVID Sidelining Shunts

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts are a challenging aspect of neurosurgery. Shunts are placed for numerous indications, however the most common cause is hydrocephalus. CSF is a shock absorber for the neural structures, transmits nutrients, and helps regulate pressure. It is produced in the brain’s ventricles by the choroid plexus, and circulates through and out the…

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