What is Neuromonitoring?

Brain and spine operations are typically performed with patients asleep. While these surgeries are intricately executed by surgeons with highly specialized training, the nervous structures commonly are manipulated. Techniques for examining the nervous system are limited in the asleep patient. To ensure temporary or permanent damage does not occur, intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is commonly performed.…

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The Smoking Spine: Nicotine’s Ability to Cause and Worsen Back Pain

20 percent of American adults are cigarette smokers. Of these individuals, about 80 percent smoke daily. Cigarette smoke has been found to contain over 4,700 chemical substances with the most notable being nicotine. Nicotine in cigarettes, e-cigarettes, vapes, oral tobacco and even nicotine patches all contain carcinogenic substances such as hydrocarbons and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA).…

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